Blood in the Earth


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51 Alfred and Mahala were married 16 Feb 1861 in Benton County, Missouri. Their children were William Alfred, Martin E., Sarah Francis (Swor), Mary Susan (Smith), Martha E., Elzetti Rebecca, and Henry.  Mahala Epley
52 Yngvar, who was King Eystein's son, then became king of Sweden.He was a great warrior, and often lay out with his warships; for the Swedish dominions were much ravaged then by Danes and East-country men. King Yngvar made a peace with the Danes; but betook himself to ravaging the East country in return. One summer he went with his forces to Estland, and plundered at a place called Stein. The men of Estland came down from the interior with a great army, and there was a battle; but the army of the country was so brave that the Swedes could not withstand them, and King Yngvar fell, and his people fled. He was buried close to the seashore under a mound in Estland; and after this defeat the Swedes returned home.[Ayres.FBC.FTW]



A successful warrior, both at home and abroad. One summer when he was fighting in Esthonia he was killed by the Esthonians. He was buried in a mound close to the seashore. [WBH - Sweden]


Son of Eystein; father of Anund. [History of Sweden, p. 38-39]

Son of Eystein Adilsson; father of:
1. Braut-Onund Ingvarsson who m. Algaut Gutreksson
2. Skirta ingvarsson

# Reference Number: FLHH-55 IG

Yngvar (The Tall) Eysteinsson
53 Also known as Mabel FitzRoberts. Mabel FitzHamon
54 Some dwarfs lured him into a cave and shut the opening with a huge boulder and he was never seen again. May have been mythical. Disappeared during a journey which he made in order to find Odin the Old. [WBH - Sweden]

!Ran after a dwarf when drunk and vanished into a boulder. [A History of the Vikings, p. 37]

Son of Fiolner; disappeared during a journey which he made in order to find Odin the old. Father of Vanlande. [History of Sweden, p. 35]

# Reference Number: G6SX-NN IG


# Note: Sveigthir was lured into a rock by a dwarf, and there remained trapped forever, according to legend. [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev]
# Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
# Note: Page: 3

Svegdi Fjolnarsson
55 Baldwin I (probably 830s ? 879), also known as Baldwin Iron Arm (the epithet is first recorded in the 12th century), was the first count of Flanders.

At the time Baldwin first appears in the records he was already a count, presumably in the area of Flanders, but this is not known. Count Baldwin rose to prominence when he eloped with princess Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, king of West Francia. Judith had previously been married to ∆thelwulf and his son (from an earlier marriage) ∆thelbald, kings of Wessex, but after the latter's death in 860 she had returned to France.

Around Christmas 861, at the instigation of Baldwin and with her brother Louis' consent Judith escaped the custody she had been put under in the city of Senlis, Oise after her return from England. She fled north with Count Baldwin. Charles had given no permission for a marriage and tried to capture Baldwin, sending letters to Rorik of Dorestad and Bishop Hungar, forbidding them to shelter the fugitive.

After Baldwin and Judith had evaded his attempts to capture them, Charles had his bishops excommunicate the couple. Judith and Baldwin responded by traveling to Rome to plead their case with Pope Nicholas I. Their plea was successful and Charles was forced to accept. The marriage took place on 13 December 862 in Auxerre. By 870 Baldwin had acquired the lay-abbacy of St. Pieter in Ghent and is assumed to have also acquired the counties of Flanders and Waasland, or parts thereof by this time. Baldwin developed himself as a very faithful and stout supporter of Charles and played an important role in the continuing wars against the Vikings. He is named in 877 as one of those willing to support the emperor's son, Louis the Stammerer. During his life Baldwin expanded his territory into one of the major principalities of Western Francia, he died in 879 and was buried in the Abbey of St-Bertin, near Saint-Omer.

[edit] Family

Baldwin was succeeded by his son by Judith, Baldwin II (c. 866 - 918). The couple's first son was named Charles after his maternal grandfather, but he died young. His third son Raoul (Rodulf) (c. 869 - murdered 896) became Count of Cambrai around 888, but he and his brother joined king Zwentibold of Lotharingia in 895. In 896 they attacked Vermandois and captured Arras, Saint-Quentin and Peronne, but later that year Raoul was captured by count Heribert and killed.
Baldwin (Baudouin) I of Flanders
56 Nancy was near full-blood indian of the Creek and Cherokee lines.
Nancy married John Parker Jr. on 7 Sept. 1819 in Hancock, Georgia. 
Nancy Folsom
57 Tabitha's last name isn't actually Choctaw. I referenced it that way because her father was a full-blood Choctaw. Tabitha Folsom
58 Frances was the sister of Nathaniel Foote, "The Settler." Frances Foote
59 John Foote's undated will was probated 18 July 1558, in which he leaves to the church of Royston, 20 s[hillings]; to wife Helen, all lands and tenements in Royston for life; and 80 [pounds] are to be divided among all the children not named at this point; to servant Maud Smythe 6 [pounds] 13 [shillings] 4 [pence] to her marriage; 3 [pounds] that my brother Foote oweth to his two eldest children; to wife's brother Richard Warren the younger and to her uncle John Jenawaye of Stoone, 40 s[hillings] each; to wife the rest; to sone Robert a goblet, feather bed and bedding; to son John Foote a silver salt, feather bed and bedding; to Aves Foote and Elizabeth Foote, daughters, each three of the best spoons, bed and bedding; all the remainder to wife named executrix; witnesses William Meede, citizen and grocer of London; John Jenaway, Nicholas Warreyn of Bassingbourn and Richard Warreyn of Bassingbourn.'[1]

1.? 1.0 1.1 1.2 McCracken, George E. Nathaniel Foote's English Relatives. The American Genealogist. (1977), 53:193.

'JOHN FOOTE of Royston, Cambridgeshire, tallow chandler, made his undated will which was probated 18 July 1558 (PCC 34 Noodles, [Abram W. Foote's Foote Family comprising the Genealogy and History of Nathaniel Foote of Wethersfield, Connecticut and his Descendants, 1907, 2:645]), in which he leaves ... to wife Helen, ... [to] my brother Foote [that he] oweth to his two eldest children; to wife's brother Richard Warren the younger and to her uncle John Jenawaye of Stoone, ... to son Robert ... to son John Foot ... to Aves Foote and Elizabeth Foote, daughters ... '

2. Valore, Janice Green. More on Nathaniel Foote's Ancestors. American Genealogist (D.L. Jacobus). (1978), 54:99-101.

This article presents the case for the "Robert Foote" of an anonymous pedigree found in British Museum Additional MSS 5533, folio 99 (see citation from Genealogical Gleanings) being in fact John Foote of Royston, tallow chandler, whose will was probated 18 July 1558.

The anonymous pedigree 'says that the said Robert "descended out of Lincolnshire" and married an unknown woman who married, second, ----- Hall, "sgt trumpeter to Queen Elizabeth." On the basis of the evidence presented in the reference cited, this Robert had sons Robert and John and daughters Elizabeth and Alice, ... In addition the will of John Foote of Royston, tallow chandler, undated but probated 18 July 1558 ... reveals that he had a wife named Helen, sons Robert and John, daughters Aves or Avis and Elizabeth. ...
The name of John's wife is given in his will as Helen, and he died before 18 July 1558. On 19 Jan. 1558/9 at St. Peter Cornhill in London there is recorded the wedding of "John Haull, trumpetor and Ellen Foote, Widowe." ... Therefore, it seems highly probable that the earliest ancestors of Nathaniel Foote known were John Foote and his wife Helen or Ellen Waryn or Warren.'

3. Waters, Henry F. Genealogical Gleanings in England. (New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Mass.: 1901), 2:1285.

'Let me first however give a short pedigree of the Foote Family which I found at the British Museum in a volume devoted to London Pedigrees and the Visitation of Surrey (Add. MS. 5533, fol. 99).
Robert Foote of Royston descended out of Lincolnshire==------ da. of --------- aft. mar. to --------- Hall, Seargt. Trumpeter to Qu. Eliz:. [parents of]
John Foote of London, grocer born at Royston.==Margaret, da. of -------- Brooke of London. [parents of]
Sir Thomas Foote of London Sheriff 1645 and aft. Lord Mayor 1649. Knight and Baronet 1660.==Elizabeth da. of Willm. Motte of London son of Robert Motte bell founder to Qu. Eliz. ...'

See article "More on Nathaniel Foote's Ancestors" (TAG 54:99-101) for an argument that the first name presented in this pedigree - Robert Foote - should have been John Foote.

4.? 4.0 4.1 McCracken, George E. Nathaniel Foote's English Relatives. The American Genealogist. (1977), 53:193.

'JOHN FOOTE of Royston, Cambridgeshire, tallow chandler, made his undated will which was probated 18 July 1558 (PCC 34 Noodles, [Abram W. Foote's Foote Family comprising the Genealogy and History of Nathaniel Foote of Wethersfield, Connecticut and his Descendants, 1907, 2:645]), in which he leaves ... to wife Helen, ... [to] my brother Foote [that he] oweth to his two eldest children; to wife's brother Richard Warren the younger and to her uncle John Jenawaye of Stoone, ... to son Robert ... to son John Foot ... to Aves Foote and Elizabeth Foote, daughters ... '

5.? Birth year estimated based on estimated birth year of his son Robert.
John Foote
60 A Yoeman in old England was a Freeholder, next under the rank of Gentleman, and in the early times one who owned a small landed estate. Robert of Shalford was such a man. He owned property in Shalford and Royston. He was the son of John Foote of London and the father of Nathaniel Foote the Settler.  Robert Foote
61 He was the son of William Fowler of Preston manor in Buckinghamshire. He inherited the manor after his father's death.

He held several posts including king's solicitor from 1461 to 1470 (the first to hold this post) and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1462 to 1477, before being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1469 to 1471 and Under-Treasurer of England in 1471. He was knighted by Edward IV in 1467.

Richard Fowler was the nephew of Sybil Quartermain and whilst the Quartermains lived at Rycote, Oxfordshire, Richard Fowler lived at the Quartermain family's ancestral home at North Weston, Somerset. The Quartermains had no surviving children and their estate at Rycote passed to Fowler.

He died on 3 November 1477 and was buried at St Rumwold's church in Buckingham. He had married Joan. the daughter of Henry Danvers, a London mercer. He had a son and heir Richard and a daughter, Sybil. His brother Thomas (Esquire of the body of King Edward IV) was mentioned in his will. Richard's descendants became the Fowler baronets of Harnage Grange.

He bequeathed money to rebuild St Rumwold's shrine in Buckingham. 
Sir Richard Fowler
62 He was the son of William Fowler of Preston manor in Buckinghamshire. He inherited the manor after his father's death.

He held several posts including king's solicitor from 1461 to 1470 (the first to hold this post) and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1462 to 1477, before being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1469 to 1471 and Under-Treasurer of England in 1471. He was knighted by Edward IV in 1467.

Richard Fowler was the nephew of Sybil Quartermain and whilst the Quartermains lived at Rycote, Oxfordshire, Richard Fowler lived at the Quartermain family's ancestral home at North Weston, Somerset. The Quartermains had no surviving children and their estate at Rycote passed to Fowler.

He died on 3 November 1477 and was buried at St Rumwold's church in Buckingham. He had married Joan. the daughter of Henry Danvers, a London mercer. He had a son and heir Richard and a daughter, Sybil. His brother Thomas (Esquire of the body of King Edward IV) was mentioned in his will. Richard's descendants became the Fowler baronets of Harnage Grange.

He bequeathed money to rebuild St Rumwold's shrine in Buckingham. 
Sir Richard Fowler
63 Sir William Fowler (ca. 1400- before 1467?) was an English justice of the peace and Member of Parliament for Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, in 1431. For the services of his father Thomas to King Edward IV, Fowler was given Preston manor in Buckinghamshire in 1465 (the prior holder was Thomas de Ros, a zealous Lancastrian, who was attainted in 1461.[1] William's wife was Cecily Englefield, a co-heiress of Nicholas Englefield, Comptroller of the Household for Richard II.

In the will of his son, Sir Richard Fowler (Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Chancellor of the Exchequer for Edward IV, it is stated that William had been interred in St. Dunstan's Chapel in Westminster Abbey. Richard acquired this manor in 1467,[2] so we may presume that William (and possibly Cecily) had died in or before that year.[ 
Sir William Fowler
64 After Halfdan Whiteleg's death, according to the sagas, his son Eystein ruled Vestfold until a rival king named Skjold used his magic powers to have Eystein knocked overboard during a sailing expedition. Eystein's body was recovered from the sea and buried with great ceremony.

# Note: [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flander & Kiev]

# Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
# Note: Page: 7  
Eysteinn (Fart) Halfdansson
65 Alternative birth: 1831, Davidson County, North Carolina. His head stone says he was born in 1830 and died 21 Dec 1890.

He is buried at Huntsville Cemetery, Madison County, AR. His wife, Charity J. (?) is buried there as well as Earnest Harris and John W. Harris.

After speculation it seems many Harris sons and grandchildren are buried in Huntsville Cemetery. I don't know about daughters yet.  
Peter William Harris
66 Stephen Hopkins (about 1582 - between 6 June 1644 and 17 July 1644),[1] was a tanner and merchant who was one of the passengers on the Mayflower in 1620, settling in Plymouth Colony. Hopkins was recruited by the Merchant Adventurers to provide governance for the colony as well as assist with the colony's ventures. Hopkins was one of forty-one signatories of the Mayflower Compact and was an assistant to the governor of the colony through 1636.

The Mayflower and In Plymouth

Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)
The vessel left England on September 1620 and was a grueling 66-day journey marked by disease, which claimed two lives. The weather and the seas forced the ship to drop anchor inside the hook tip of Cape Cod Harbor. While still aboard ship John Turner signed the Mayflower Compact, which some scholars have suggested was the world's first written constitution.[2][3][4]

The is some speculation that Stephen Hopkins was formerly aboard the new flagship of the Virginia Company, the Sea Venture, on which Sir George Somers took the helm.[5] Another hint that this is the same Hopkins as previously described is that when part of the original exploring party to leave the Mayflower they came across a tree bent attached to boughs and grasses woven together atop a deep pit, Hopkins immediately identified it as an Indian trap to catch deer which he probably had previously seen in Virginia. As stated by author Charles Banks, he certainly could not have gotten that information in London.[6]

The records show that Stephen Hopkins married a woman called Mary. Mary died in 1613 in Hursley, England while Hopkins was away, perhaps in Virginia.[7]

2. Elizabeth Fisher: married Hopkins at St. Mary Matfellon, Whitechapel, London, on 19 February 1617/8, and was a Mayflower passenger who died in Plymouth, 1639.

Stephen and Mary had three children:
Elizabeth Hopkins, b. abt. 13 Mar 1605, Hursley, Hampshire, England; she more than likely died before the Mayflower voyage.[9]
Constance Hopkins, b. abt. 11 May 1606, Hursley, Hampshire, England; Mayflower passenger; married Nicholas Snow, who came to Plymouth on the ship Anne in 1623; died in Plymouth Colony, 1677.[10]
Giles Hopkins, b. abt. 30 Jan 1608, Hursley, Hampshire, England Mayflower passenger, married Catherine Whelden, daughter of Gabriel Whelden of Malden and Yarmouth[11]

Stephen and Elizabeth had seven children:
Damaris Hopkins, b.abt. 1618; London, England; Mayflower passenger. Died before 1627 Division of Land.
Oceanus Hopkins, b. fall 1620, en route to Plymouth onboard the Mayflower. Died before 1627 Division of Land.[12]
Caleb Hopkins, b. abt. 1623, Plymouth; dead by spring 1651.
Deborah Hopkins, b. abt. 1625, Plymouth, married Andrew Ring, son of William and Mary Ring
Damaris Hopkins, b. abt. 1627, Plymouth, married Jacob Cooke, son of Pilgrim, Francis Cooke and Hester Mayhieu (Cooke)
Ruth Hopkins, b. abt. 1629, Plymouth
Elizabeth Hopkins, b. abt. 1631, Plymouth.
Stephen Hopkins
67 The kingly line [of Norway], which Snorri [Sturlusson, 13th century historian] traces claimed descent from the ancient Yngling kings who ruled at Uppsala in Sweden. Their legendary Yngling ancestor was Olof Tretelgia Ingjaldsson, who had escaped the aftermath of his father's conflagration by fleeing to Norway.

Her King Olof earned his nickname, which means "the Woodcutter", by clearing the forest and cultivating the land. He named his new domain Varmland and such a large group of Swedes followed him there "that the land could not give them sustenance."

# Note: After a season of bad harvests, the woodcutting king was sacrificed to Odin so that his people might have good crops. He was succeeded by his son Halfdan Whiteleg, who is said to have extended his rule over much of southern Norway.

# Note: [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flander & Kiev]

# Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
# Note: Page: 6

Olaf (The Woodcutter) Ingjaldsson
68 Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
# Note: Page: 4

King Onund one autumn, travelling between his mansion-houses,came over a road called Himmenheath, where there are some narrow mountain valleys, with high mountains on both sides. There was heavy rain at the time, and before there had been snow on the mountains. A landslip of clay and stones came down upon King Onund and his people, and there he met his death, and many with him.  
Anund (The Cultivator) Ingvarsson
69 "Niall held sway over the largest amount of territory ever controlled by an Irish king until that point, and his kingdom was only eclipsed by his nephew and successor, Dalphi. He controlled all of Ireland, large portions of Britain, and even part of France. He seriously damaged Roman ability to control Britain and Gaul and helped bring about the end of the Empire in the north."  King Niall Mor (The Great) of Ireland of the Nine Hostages
70 Flora went by her middle name, Etta. She was married at least twice, to Mr. Davis and to Mr. Smith. It was rumored there were more husbands. She used the surname of Davis in her old age, though it seems Mr. Smith came afterwards.
One might speculate many things about that. It might mean he may not have lived enough years for her to feel she should stay Smith, though her children were Smiths. Maybe he wasn't likable to her so she went back to Davis after his passing. It could be that Mr. Davis was the true love of her life so she used his name after no more husbands. There is also the possibility that she simply liked the name "Davis" better than the name "Smith". These speculations will require investigation.

She is buried as Flora Etta Johnson Davis. Smith was not mentioned in the newspaper article of her obituary, though her children are. I'm going to fix that, I think.

Etta's children were Johnnie Cecil Smith, D. E. Smith of Woodbridge, CA, W. L. Smith of Oklahoma, and Flossie May (Smith) Harmon of Oklahoma. 
Flora Etta Davis Smith Johnson
71 Beaten in battle by Halfdan Frodasson of Denmark. He sacrificed 9 sons in order to prolong his life and died of very old age. A wise man who made great sacrifices to the gods. Being no warrior, he lived quietly at home. Twice he fled from Upsala, on account of Danish invasions, remaining in West Gothland 25 years each time, and holding sway at Upsala for an equally long time between his periods of exile. He lived to become 110 years of age. The secret of his longevity was that he sacrificed one of his sons to Odin every 10th year, and was granted in return a decade of prolonged life. When about to sacrifice his 10th son, the people interfered, and he died from old age. The last 10 years of his life he was very feeble, drinking out of a horn like an infant. He was buried in a mound at Upsala. [WBH - Sweden]


Son of Jorund. He was a wise man who made great sacrifices to the gods. Being no warrior he lived quietly at home. Twice he fled from Upsala, on account of Danish invasions, remaining in West Gothland 25 years each time, and holding sway at Upsala for an equally long time between his periods of exile. He lived to become 110 years of age. The secret of his longevity was that he sacrificed one of his sons to Oden every 10th year, and was granted in return a decade of prolonged life. When about to sacrifice his 10th son, the people interfered, and he died from old age. The last 10 years of his life he was very feeble, drinking out of a horn like an infant. He was bur. in a mound at Upsala. His son Egil succeeded him. [History of Sweden, p. 37]

# Reference Number: G6SZ-TN


# Note:

King Aun sacrificed one of his sons to Odin every ten years in order to prolong his life. After he had sacrificed nine sons and attained to the age of one hundred and ninety, his subjects forbade him to sacrifice his tenth son, and he died of old age, so weak that he had to suck nourishment from a horn like a baby. While his life was ignobly prolonged, he missed out on the greatest glory a Viking could imagine - that of dying nobly in battle. (legends of Swedish kings) [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev]

# Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
# Note: Page: 3

Aun (The Aged Ani) Jorundsson
72 Effie married Cecil Smith 2 Jan 1932. Her father, J. A. Long, was witness on the marriage license. She was 23 years old. The marriage was in Muscogee County, OK. Effie Long
73 Name: Richard H. Long Rank: Private Company: G
Twelfth Regiment Kansas Volunteers - Infantry
Long, Richard H.
1890 Special Federal Census on Microfilm No. M123, Roll 29. It is presented exactly as it was sent to me. We are showing the entry number, name, service with, dates of service, and post office listed at time of the Federal Census.
Page 2
74 Long, Richard H. - Pvt- G -12 KS Inf - Jun 22, 1861 - Jul 1, 1865- Double Hernia- Linn Creek
born in Virginia, 1825 - son of Thomas D Long and Mary Bond
married Avis Raines 12 August 1847, Camden Co, MO
found on 1850 censu- Camden Co, MO
1860 census - Newton Co, AR
Richard Long, one of Camden county's well known pioneers, died at Damsel, Mo, last Sunday at 3:30 o'clock pm and was buried near his home at the mouth of Anderson Hollow, the funeral being conducted by Rev. H. H. Blount.
Mr Long first came to Missourri in 1844, since which his home had been in Camden county a greater portion of the time, although he had also lived in KY, AR, Texas and Kansas at different periods.
He served his country 3 1/2 years during the Civil War.
He leaves several children of whom the eldest, John E. lives at the old homestead on Anderson Hollow. The departed pioneer was one of those rare characters whose chief aim in life was to faithfully serve God and benefit his fellow man. He lived at peace with all men and died regretted by all who knew his simple virtues and charities and steadfast honesty of purpose. (Date of death was 22 April 1900.) 
Richard H. Long
74 Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
Page: cxiv
Text: Harlette is the common mother between William I and Robert de Mortain.

Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
Page: 121-23, 130-23

Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
Page: III:164  
Princess of Scotland Doda Mac Alpan
75 Lula and George were married 18 Aug 1901 in Clarksville, Johnson, AR. Lula Elizabeth Martin
76 Was married twice. First to Minerva. Nancy Dean was his second wife. Thomas W. Martin
77 He was christened on 6 Dec 1625 in St. Peter, Bolton Le Moors, Lancastershire, England.

Cutter, William Richard. New England families, genealogical and memorial: a record of the achievements of her people in the making of commonwealths and the founding of a nation, Volume 2. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1914, page 984.

Sampson Mason, the immigrant ancestor, was a soldier or "dragoon" in Cromwell's army, and he came to America about 1650. The earliest record found of him in America is in the Suffolk county record of the settlement of the estate of Edward Bullock, of Dorchester, Massachusetts. His will was dated July 25, 1640, and a debt is mentioned due to Sampson Mason for his wife's shoes. In 1651 Sampson Mason purchased a house and land in Dorchester of William Botts, and afterwards sold it to Jacob Hewins. He removed to Rehoboth, Massachusetts, where by vote of the town, December, 1657, was given permission to buy land and settle there. He was a Baptist, and the records show that he and other Baptists became prominent in the town in spite of the fact that they were only allowed to live there, without the privilege of being made freemen, by the Puritan inhabitants. He obtained grants of land south of Rehoboth, from the Indians, in the town Swansea. His name is among the original associates and founders of the town, and of the original proprietors of the "North Purchase," later Attleborough, Massachusetts. He died in 1676, in the midst of Indian wars, and his widow settled that of the estate which was left after the ravages of the Indians. Children: Noah, born probably in Dorchester; Sampson, in Dorchester; Samuel, February 12, 1656-57; Sarah, February 15, 1658; John, in Dorchester; Mary, February 1660; James. October 30, 1661 ; Joseph, March 6, 1663-64; Bethia, October 15, 1665; Isaac, mentioned below; Peletiah, April I, 1669, Rehoboth; Benjamin, October zo, 1670; Thankful, October 27, 1672.
Sampson Mason
78 Richard and Priscilla were married in TN in 1817. They are both buried at the Old Dodson Cemetery, Newton County, AR. Priscilla Hale McCutcheon
79 (I) Lieutenant William Merrick, the eldest of the four immigrant brothers, was born in Wales, in 1603, and came to Charlestown, Massachusetts, in the ship "James" in the spring of 1636. Nothing is known of his early life; he was a farmer after arriving in Massachusetts.

He served six years after his arrival in the colony, in the colonial militia under Captain Miles Standish. and is mentioned in the records as an ensign, and later as a lieutenant. "That he gave all his time and attention to his military duties seems to be indicated by the fact that he was not married until 1642, which was at the end of his six year term of service. He appears to have had property both at Eastham and Duxbury. He was probably married at Eastham, but the destruction of a part of the book of records of that town renders it impossible to determine this fact definitely. He certainly lived in both Eastham and Duxbury, within the decade between 1637 and 1647, as some of his children were born at Eastham during that time, and yet he is reported as being a citizen pf Duxbury.

The records relate that he was a citizen of Duxbury in 1636, when he was allotted five acres of land "Next the Glade at Powder Point." In 1637 he was allotted another twenty acres at Great Head. He was one of the original proprietors of Bridgewater. He was surveyor of highways in 1646, and constable in 1647. May 22, 1655. he became a legal voter in Eastham, and took up his permanent residence there.

Paige, in his history of Hardwick, says: "William Merrick, the father, was a lieutenant, residing in Eastham. In
his will, dated December 3, 1686, and proved March
6, 1689. he is described as about 86 years of age,
by which it would seem that he was about forty-
three years old when the first of his ten children
was born, and he might seem to be the grandfather
of this family rather than the father, were it not
that he names his wife Rebecca and his children,
Stephen and William, in his will."

He married, in Eastham, in 1642, Rebecca, whose
surname is not known. She died in Eastham. in
1688. Ten children were born to them : William,
Stephen, Rebecca, Mary, Ruth, Sarah, John, Isaac,
Joseph and Benjamin."
William Merrick
80 The twice-widowed Jane Stith, now wife of the colonial aristocrat Major John Stith Sr., a First Family of the Virginia Colonies, is thought to be the daughter of Vice Edward Mosby, although it is still only speculation.

Born in England about 1624, she is first documented as "Ja. Gregory" by Firdinando Austin, February 13, 1653, along with her first husband Thomas Gregory, when Austin claimed headrights for paying their transportation to the new world.

In the latter part of 1656, and soon after the death of her second husband Joseph Parsons, Jane met and married John Stith. In 1663, after the death of Edward Mosby, John was made guardian of Jane's step child, Judith Parsons. It is thought Mosby may be the child's grandfather. John and Jane had at least the following Five children: Captain John Stith Jr., their first male child and heir to his father's fortune, married Mary Randolph, the daughter of Colonel William Randolph and Mary Royal Isham of Turkey Island; a second son, Lieutenant Colonel Drury Stith whom married Susanna Bathurst; a daughter Ann, second wife of the wealthy Colonel Robert Bolling Sr. of Kippax Plantation of Hopewell, Virginia; husband of first wife Jane Rolfe, granddaughter of Matoaka "Princess Pocahontas"; a daughter Agnes, wife of Thomas Wynn, who is said to be the daughter of Jane and Joseph Parsons and Jane, wife of Captain Daniel Llewellyn.

Once poor and widowed, now a Colonial Dame, married into wealthy Virginia Society, Jane lived a life of luxury not unlike the Lords and Ladies of her English home-land. She is said to have died in the winter of 1686 at their James River plantation, however the location of her grave is still unknown.
Jane Mosby
81 Claudius (Latin: Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus;[1] 1 August 10 BC ? 13 October AD 54) was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37. Claudius' infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family.

Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire conquered Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia and Judaea, and began the conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. However, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. After his death in 54, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor.
Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC in Lugdunum to Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia on the day of the dedication of the altar to Augustus at the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls. He had two older siblings named Germanicus and Livilla. Antonia may have had two other children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus' sister, and therefore the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar. His paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus' third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the false appearance that Augustus was Claudius' paternal grandfather.

In 9 BC, Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, possibly from illness. Claudius was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius' disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years.[2] Livia was little kinder, and often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a "former mule-driver"[3] to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In 7, Livy was hired to tutor him in history, with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus. He spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory.[4] Expectations about his future began to increase.

Ironically, it was his work as a budding historian that destroyed his early career. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars that was either too truthful or too critical of Octavian.[5] In either case, it was far too early for such an account, and may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant. His mother and grandmother quickly put a stop to it, and this may have convinced them that Claudius was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line. When he returned to the narrative later in life, Claudius skipped over the wars of the second triumvirate altogether. But the damage was done, and his family pushed him to the background. When the Arch of Pavia was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8, Claudius' name (now Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus after his elevation to paterfamilias of Claudii Nerones on the adoption of his brother) was inscribed on the edge?past the deceased princes, Gaius and Lucius, and Germanicus' children. There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear at all.[6]

Gratus proclaims Claudius emperor. Detail from A Roman Emperor 41AD, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Oil on canvas, c. 1871.
When Augustus died in 14, Claudius ? then 23 ? appealed to his uncle Tiberius to allow him to begin the cursus honorum. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius requested office once more and was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was not any more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life.
Despite the disdain of the Imperial family, it seems that from very early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus' death, the equites, or knights, chose Claudius to head their delegation. When his house burned down, the Senate demanded it be rebuilt at public expense. They also requested that Claudius be allowed to debate in the Senate. Tiberius turned down both motions, but the sentiment remained. During the period immediately after the death of Tiberius' son, Drusus, Claudius was pushed by some quarters as a potential heir. This again suggests the political nature of his exclusion from public life. However, as this was also the period during which the power and terror of the Praetorian Sejanus was at its peak, Claudius chose to downplay this possibility.

After the death of Tiberius the new emperor Caligula (the son of Claudius' brother Germanicus) recognized Claudius to be of some use. He appointed Claudius his co-consul in 37 in order to emphasize the memory of Caligula's deceased father Germanicus. Despite this, Caligula relentlessly tormented his uncle: playing practical jokes, charging him enormous sums of money, humiliating him before the Senate, and the like. According to Cassius Dio Claudius became very sickly and thin by the end of Caligula's reign, most likely due to stress.[7] A possible surviving portrait of Claudius from this period may support this.
On 24 January, 41, Caligula was assassinated in a broad-based conspiracy involving the Praetorian commander Cassius Chaerea and several Senators. There is no evidence that Claudius had a direct hand in the assassination, although it has been argued that he knew about the plot ? particularly since he left the scene of the crime shortly before his nephew was murdered.[8] However, after the deaths of Caligula's wife and daughter, it became apparent that Cassius intended to go beyond the terms of the conspiracy and wipe out the Imperial family. In the chaos following the murder, Claudius witnessed the German guard cut down several uninvolved noblemen, including many of his friends. He fled to the palace to hide. According to tradition, a Praetorian named Gratus found him hiding behind a curtain and suddenly declared him princeps.[9] A section of the guard may have planned in advance to seek out Claudius, perhaps with his approval. They reassured him that they were not one of the battalions looking for revenge. He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection.
The Senate quickly met and began debating a change of government, but this eventually devolved into an argument over which of them would be the new Princeps. When they heard of the Praetorians' claim, they demanded that Claudius be delivered to them for approval, but he refused, sensing the danger that would come with complying. Some historians, particularly Josephus,[10] claim that Claudius was directed in his actions by the Judean King Herod Agrippa. However, an earlier version of events by the same ancient author downplays Agrippa's role[11] ? so it is not known how large a hand he had in things. Eventually the Senate was forced to give in and, in return, Claudius pardoned nearly all the assassins.
Claudius took several steps to legitimize his rule against potential usurpers, most of them emphasizing his place within the Julio-Claudian family. He adopted the name "Caesar" as a cognomen ? the name still carried great weight with the populace. In order to do so, he dropped the cognomen "Nero" which he had adopted as paterfamilias of the Claudii Nerones when his brother Germanicus was adopted out. While he had never been adopted by Augustus or his successors, he was the grandson of Octavia, and so felt he had the right. He also adopted the name "Augustus" as the two previous emperors had done at their accessions. He kept the honorific "Germanicus" in order to display the connection with his heroic brother. He deified his paternal grandmother Livia in order to highlight her position as wife of the divine Augustus. Claudius frequently used the term "filius Drusi" (son of Drusus) in his titles, in order to remind the people of his legendary father and lay claim to his reputation.

Because he was proclaimed Emperor on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate ? the first Emperor thus proclaimed ? Claudius' repute suffered at the hands of commentators (such as Seneca). Moreover, he was the first Emperor who resorted to bribery as a means to secure army loyalty.[12] Tiberius and Augustus had both left gifts to the army and guard in their wills, and upon Caligula's death the same would have been expected, even if no will existed. Claudius remained grateful to the guard, however, issuing coins with tributes to the Praetorians in the early part of his reign.
Under Claudius, the Empire underwent its first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Judea were annexed under various circumstances during his term. The annexation of Mauretania, begun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two Imperial provinces.[13] The most far-reaching conquest was the conquest of Britannia.[14]
In 43, Claudius sent Aulus Plautius with four legions to Britain (Britannia) after an appeal from an ousted tribal ally. Britain was an attractive target for Rome because of its material wealth ? particularly mines and slaves. It was also a haven for Gallic rebels and the like, and so could not be left alone much longer. Claudius himself travelled to the island after the completion of initial offensives, bringing with him reinforcements and elephants. The latter must have made an impression on the Britons when they were displayed in the large tribal centre of Camulodunum.

He left after 16 days, but remained in the provinces for some time. The Senate granted him a triumph for his efforts, as only members of the Imperial family were allowed such honours. Claudius later lifted this restriction for some of his conquering generals. He was granted the honorific "Britannicus" but only accepted it on behalf of his son, never using the title himself. When the British general Caractacus was captured in 50, Claudius granted him clemency. Caractacus lived out his days on land provided by the Roman state, an unusual end for an enemy commander.

Claudius conducted a census in 48 that found 5,984,072 Roman citizens,[15] an increase of around a million since the census conducted at Augustus' death. He had helped increase this number through the foundation of Roman colonies that were granted blanket citizenship. These colonies were often made out of existing communities, especially those with elites who could rally the populace to the Roman cause. Several colonies were placed in new provinces or on the border of the Empire in order to secure Roman holdings as quickly as possible.
Claudius personally judged many of the legal cases tried during his reign. Ancient historians have many complaints about this, stating that his judgments were variable and sometimes did not follow the law.[16] He was also easily swayed. Nevertheless, Claudius paid detailed attention to the operation of the judicial system. He extended the summer court session, as well as the winter term, by shortening the traditional breaks. Claudius also made a law requiring plaintiffs to remain in the city while their cases were pending, as defendants had previously been required to do. These measures had the effect of clearing out the docket. The minimum age for jurors was also raised to 25 in order to ensure a more experienced jury pool.[17]

Claudius also settled disputes in the provinces. He freed the island of Rhodes from Roman rule for their good faith and exempted Troy from taxes. Early in his reign, the Greeks and Jews of Alexandria sent him two embassies at once after riots broke out between the two communities. This resulted in the famous "Letter to the Alexandrians", which reaffirmed Jewish rights in the city but also forbade them to move in more families en masse. According to Josephus, he then reaffirmed the rights and freedoms of all the Jews in the Empire.[18] One of Claudius's investigators discovered that many old Roman citizens based in the modern city of Trento were not in fact citizens.[19] The Emperor issued a declaration that they would be considered to hold citizenship from then on, since to strip them of their status would cause major problems. However, in individual cases, Claudius punished false assumption of citizenship harshly, making it a capital offense. Similarly, any freedmen found to be impersonating equestrians were sold back into slavery.[20]

Numerous edicts were issued throughout Claudius' reign. These were on a number of topics, everything from medical advice to moral judgments. Two famous medical examples are one promoting Yew juice as a cure for snakebite,[21] and another promoting public flatulence for good health.[22] One of the more famous edicts concerned the status of sick slaves. Masters had been abandoning ailing slaves at the temple of Aesculapius to die, and then reclaiming them if they lived. Claudius ruled that slaves who recovered after such treatment would be free. Furthermore, masters who chose to kill slaves rather than take the risk were liable to be charged with murder.[23]
Claudius embarked on many public works throughout his reign, both in the capital and in the provinces. He built two aqueducts, the Aqua Claudia, begun by Caligula, and the Anio Novus. These entered the city in 52 and met at the famous Porta Maggiore. He also restored a third, the Aqua Virgo.
He paid special attention to transportation. Throughout Italy and the provinces he built roads and canals. Among these was a large canal leading from the Rhine to the sea, as well as a road from Italy to Germany ? both begun by his father, Drusus. Closer to Rome, he built a navigable canal on the Tiber, leading to Portus, his new port just north of Ostia. This port was constructed in a semicircle with two moles and a lighthouse at its mouth. The construction also had the effect of reducing flooding in Rome.

The port at Ostia was part of Claudius' solution to the constant grain shortages that occurred in winter, after the Roman shipping season. The other part of his solution was to insure the ships of grain merchants who were willing to risk travelling to Egypt in the off-season. He also granted their sailors special privileges, including citizenship and exemption from the Lex Papia-Poppaea, a law that regulated marriage. In addition, he repealed the taxes that Caligula had instituted on food, and further reduced taxes on communities suffering drought or famine.

The last part of Claudius' plan was to increase the amount of arable land in Italy. This was to be achieved by draining the Fucine lake, which would have the added benefit of making the nearby river navigable year-round.[24] A tunnel was dug through the lake bed, but the plan was a failure. The tunnel was crooked and not large enough to carry the water, which caused it to back up when opened. The resultant flood washed out a large gladiatorial exhibition held to commemorate the opening, causing Claudius to run for his life along with the other spectators. The draining of the lake was revisited many times in history, including by Emperors Trajan and Hadrian, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in the Middle Ages. It was finally achieved by the Prince Torlonia in the 19th century, producing over 160,000 acres (650 km2) of new arable land.[25] He expanded the Claudian tunnel to three times its original size.
Because of the circumstances of his accession, Claudius took great pains to please the Senate. During regular sessions, the Emperor sat among the Senate body, speaking in turn. When introducing a law, he sat on a bench between the consuls in his position as Holder of the Power of Tribune (The Emperor could not officially serve as a Tribune of the Plebes as he was a Patrician, but it was a power taken by previous rulers). He refused to accept all his predecessors' titles (including Imperator) at the beginning of his reign, preferring to earn them in due course. He allowed the Senate to issue its own bronze coinage for the first time since Augustus. He also put the Imperial provinces of Macedonia and Achaea back under Senate control.

Claudius set about remodeling the Senate into a more efficient, representative body. He chided the senators about their reluctance to debate bills introduced by himself, as noted in the fragments of a surviving speech:

If you accept these proposals, Conscript Fathers, say so at once and simply, in accordance with your convictions. If you do not accept them, find alternatives, but do so here and now; or if you wish to take time for consideration, take it, provided you do not forget that you must be ready to pronounce your opinion whenever you may be summoned to meet. It ill befits the dignity of the Senate that the consul designate should repeat the phrases of the consuls word for word as his opinion, and that every one else should merely say 'I approve', and that then, after leaving, the assembly should announce 'We debated'.[26]
In 47 he assumed the office of Censor with Lucius Vitellius, which had been allowed to lapse for some time. He struck the names of many senators and equites who no longer met qualifications, but showed respect by allowing them to resign in advance. At the same time, he sought to admit eligible men from the provinces. The Lyon Tablet preserves his speech on the admittance of Gallic senators, in which he addresses the Senate with reverence but also with criticism for their disdain of these men. He also increased the number of Patricians by adding new families to the dwindling number of noble lines. Here he followed the precedent of Lucius Junius Brutus and Julius Caesar.

Nevertheless, many in the Senate remained hostile to Claudius, and many plots were made on his life. This hostility carried over into the historical accounts. As a result, Claudius was forced to reduce the Senate's power for efficiency. The administration of Ostia was turned over to an Imperial Procurator after construction of the port. Administration of many of the empire's financial concerns was turned over to Imperial appointees and freedmen. This led to further resentment and suggestions that these same freedmen were ruling the Emperor.

Several coup attempts were made during Claudius' reign, resulting in the deaths of many senators. Appius Silanus was executed early in Claudius' reign under questionable circumstances. Shortly after, a large rebellion was undertaken by the Senator Vinicianus and Scribonianus, the governor of Dalmatia and gained quite a few senatorial supporters. It ultimately failed because of the reluctance of Scribonianus' troops, and the suicide of the main conspirators. Many other senators tried different conspiracies and were condemned. Claudius' son-in-law Pompeius Magnus was executed for his part in a conspiracy with his father Crassus Frugi. Another plot involved the consulars Lusiius Saturninus, Cornelius Lupus, and Pompeius Pedo.

In 46, Asinius Gallus, the grandson of Asinius Pollio, and Statilius Corvinus were exiled for a plot hatched with several of Claudius' own freedmen. Valerius Asiaticus was executed without public trial for unknown reasons. The ancient sources say the charge was adultery, and that Claudius was tricked into issuing the punishment. However, Claudius singles out Asiaticus for special damnation in his speech on the Gauls, which dates over a year later, suggesting that the charge must have been much more serious. Asiaticus had been a claimant to the throne in the chaos following Caligula's death and a co-consul with the Statilius Corvinus mentioned above. Most of these conspiracies took place before Claudius' term as Censor, and may have induced him to review the Senatorial rolls. The conspiracy of Gaius Silius in the year after his Censorship, 48, is detailed in the section discussing Claudius' third wife, Messalina. Suetonius states that a total of 35 senators and 300 knights were executed for offenses during Claudius' reign.[27] Needless to say, the necessary responses to these conspiracies could not have helped Senate-emperor relations.
Claudius was hardly the first emperor to use freedmen to help with the day-to-day running of the Empire. He was, however, forced to increase their role as the powers of the Princeps became more centralized and the burden larger. This was partly due to the ongoing hostility of the Senate, as mentioned above, but also due to his respect for the senators. Claudius did not want free-born magistrates to have to serve under him, as if they were not peers.

The secretariat was divided into bureaus, with each being placed under the leadership of one freedman. Narcissus was the secretary of correspondence. Pallas became the secretary of the treasury. Callistus became secretary of justice. There was a fourth bureau for miscellaneous issues, which was put under Polybius until his execution for treason. The freedmen could also officially speak for the Emperor, as when Narcissus addressed the troops in Claudius' stead before the conquest of Britain. Since these were important positions, the senators were aghast at their being placed in the hands of former slaves. If freedmen had total control of money, letters, and law, it seemed it would not be hard for them to manipulate the Emperor. This is exactly the accusation put forth by the ancient sources. However, these same sources admit that the freedmen were loyal to Claudius.[28] He was similarly appreciative of them and gave them due credit for policies where he had used their advice. However, if they showed treasonous inclinations, the Emperor did punish them with just force, as in the case of Polybius and Pallas' brother, Felix. There is no evidence that the character of Claudius' policies and edicts changed with the rise and fall of the various freedmen, suggesting that he was firmly in control throughout.

Regardless of the extent of their political power, the freedmen did manage to amass wealth through their positions. Pliny the Elder notes that several of them were richer than Crassus, the richest man of the Republican era.[29]
Claudius, as the author of a treatise on Augustus' religious reforms, felt himself in a good position to institute some of his own. He had strong opinions about the proper form for state religion. He refused the request of Alexandrian Greeks to dedicate a temple to his divinity, saying that only gods may choose new gods. He restored lost days to festivals and got rid of many extraneous celebrations added by Caligula. He re-instituted old observances and archaic language. Claudius was concerned with the spread of eastern mysteries within the city and searched for more Roman replacements. He emphasized the Eleusinian mysteries which had been practiced by so many during the Republic. He expelled foreign astrologers, and at the same time rehabilitated the old Roman soothsayers (known as haruspices) as a replacement. He was especially hard on Druidism, because of its incompatibility with the Roman state religion and its proselytizing activities.[citation needed]

It is also reported that at one time he expelled the Jews from Rome, probably because the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus.[30] Claudius opposed proselytizing in any religion, even in those regions where he allowed natives to worship freely. The results of all these efforts were recognized even by Seneca, who has an ancient Latin god defend Claudius in his satire.[31]
According to Suetonius, Claudius was extraordinarily fond of games. He is said to have risen with the crowd after gladiatorial matches and given unrestrained praise to the fighters.[32] Claudius also presided over many new and original events. Soon after coming into power, Claudius instituted games to be held in honor of his father on the latter's birthday.[33] Annual games were also held in honor of his accession, and took place at the Praetorian camp where Claudius had first been proclaimed Emperor.[34] Claudius performed the Secular games, marking the 800th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Augustus had performed the same games less than a century prior. Augustus' excuse was that the interval for the games was 110 years, not 100, but his date actually did not qualify under either reasoning.[34] Claudius also presented naval battles to mark the attempted draining of the Fucine lake, as well as many other public games and shows.

At Ostia, in front of a crowd of spectators, Claudius fought a killer whale which was trapped in the harbor. The event was witnessed by Pliny the Elder:

A killer whale was actually seen in the harbor of Ostia, locked in combat with the emperor Claudius. She had come when he was completing the construction of the harbor, drawn there by the wreck of a ship bringing leather hides from Gaul, and feeding there over a number of days, had made a furrow in the shallows: the waves had raised up such a mound of sand that she couldn't turn around at all, and while she was pursuing her banquet as the waves moved it shorewards, her back stuck up out of the water like the overturned keel of a boat. The Emperor ordered that a large array of nets be stretched across the mouths of the harbor, and setting out in person with the Praetorian cohorts gave a show to the Roman people, soldiers showering lances from attacking ships, one of which I saw swamped by the beast's waterspout and sunk. ? "Historia Naturalis" IX.14?15.[35]

Claudius also restored and adorned many of the venues around Rome. The old wooden barriers of the Circus Maximus were replaced with ones made of gold-ornamented marble.[34] A new section of the Circus was designated for seating the senators, who previously had sat among the general public.[34] Claudius rebuilt Pompey's Theater after it had been destroyed by fire, organizing special fights at the re-dedication which he observed from a special platform in the orchestra box.[34]
Claudius' love life was unusual for an upper-class Roman of his day, in that he was the only one out of the first 15 emperors not to take men or boys, but only women as lovers. Suetonius and the other ancient authors used this against Claudius. They accused him of being dominated by these same women and wives, of being uxorious, and of being a womanizer.

Claudius married four times, after two failed betrothals. The first betrothal was to his distant cousin Aemilia Lepida, but was broken for political reasons. The second was to Livia Medullina, which ended with Medullina's sudden death on their wedding day.
Plautia Urgulanilla was the granddaughter of Livia's confidant Urgulania. During their marriage she gave birth to a son, Claudius Drusus. Unfortunately, Drusus died of asphyxiation in his early teens, shortly after becoming engaged to Junilla, the daughter of Sejanus. Claudius later divorced Urgulanilla for adultery and on suspicion of murdering her sister-in-law Apronia. When Urgulanilla gave birth after the divorce, Claudius repudiated the baby girl, Claudia, as the father was one of his own freedmen.
Soon after (possibly in 28), Claudius married Aelia Paetina, a relative of Sejanus, if not Sejanus's adoptive sister. During their marriage, Claudius and Paetina had a daughter, Claudia Antonia. He later divorced her after the marriage became a political liability, although Leon (1948) suggests it may have been due to emotional and mental abuse by Paetina.

Some years after divorcing Aelia Paetina, in 38 or early 39, Claudius married Valeria Messalina, who was his first cousin once removed and closely allied with Caligula's circle. Shortly thereafter, she gave birth to a daughter Claudia Octavia. A son, first named Tiberius Claudius Germanicus, and later known as Britannicus, was born just after Claudius' accession. This marriage ended in tragedy. The ancient historians allege that Messalina was a nymphomaniac who was regularly unfaithful to Claudius ? Tacitus states she went so far as to compete with a prostitute to see who could have the most sexual partners in a night[36] ? and manipulated his policies in order to amass wealth. In 48, Messalina married her lover Gaius Silius in a public ceremony while Claudius was at Ostia.

Sources disagree as to whether or not she divorced the Emperor first, and whether the intention was to usurp the throne. Scramuzza, in his biography, suggests that Silius may have convinced Messalina that Claudius was doomed, and the union was her only hope of retaining rank and protecting her children.[37] The historian Tacitus suggests that Claudius's ongoing term as Censor may have prevented him from noticing the affair before it reached such a critical point.[38] Whatever the case, the result was the execution of Silius, Messalina, and most of her circle.[39] Claudius made the Praetorians promise to kill him if he ever married again.[
Despite this declaration, Claudius did marry once more. The ancient sources tell that his freedmen pushed three candidates:
Caligula's third wife Lollia Paulina
Claudius's divorced second wife Aelia Paetina
Claudius's niece Agrippina the Younger

According to Suetonius, Agrippina won out through her feminine wiles.[40] The truth is likely more political. The attempted coup d'etat by Silius and Messalina had probably made Claudius realize the weakness of his position as a member of the Claudian but not the Julian family. This weakness was compounded by the fact that he did not have an obvious adult heir, Britannicus being just a boy. Agrippina was one of the few remaining descendants of Augustus, and her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (the future Emperor Nero) was one of the last males of the Imperial family. Future coup attempts could rally around the pair, and Agrippina was already showing such ambition. It has been suggested in recent times that the Senate may have pushed for the marriage to end the feud between the Julian and Claudian branches.[41] This feud dated back to Agrippina's mother's actions against Tiberius after the death of her husband Germanicus (Claudius's brother), actions which Tiberius had gladly punished. In any case, Claudius accepted Agrippina, and later adopted the newly mature Nero as his son.

Nero was made joint heir with the underage Britannicus, married to Octavia and heavily promoted. This was not as unusual as it seems to people acquainted with modern hereditary monarchies. Barbara Levick notes that Augustus had named his grandson Postumus Agrippa and his stepson Tiberius as joint heirs.[42] Tiberius named Caligula joint heir with his grandson Tiberius Gemellus. Adoption of adults or near adults was an old tradition in Rome when a suitable natural adult heir was unavailable. This was the case during Britannicus' minority. S.V. Oost suggests that Claudius had previously looked to adopt one of his sons-in-law to protect his own reign.[43] Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, married to his daughter Claudia Antonia, was only descended from Octavia and Antony on one side ? not close enough to the Imperial family to prevent doubts (that did not stop others from making him the object of a coup attempt against Nero a few years later). Besides which, he was the half brother of Valeria Messalina, and at this time those wounds were still fresh. Nero was more popular with the general public as the grandson of Germanicus and the direct descendant of Augustus.
The historian Suetonius describes the physical manifestations of Claudius' affliction in relatively good detail.[44] His knees were weak and gave way under him and his head shook. He stammered and his speech was confused. He slobbered and his nose ran when he was excited. The Stoic Seneca states in his Apocolocyntosis that Claudius' voice belonged to no land animal, and that his hands were weak as well;[45] however, he showed no physical deformity, as Suetonius notes that when calm and seated he was a tall, well-built figure of dignitas.[44] When angered or stressed, his symptoms became worse. Historians agree that this condition improved upon his accession to the throne.[46] Claudius himself claimed that he had exaggerated his ailments to save his own life.[47]

The modern diagnosis has changed several times in the past century. Prior to World War II, infantile paralysis (or polio) was widely accepted as the cause. This is the diagnosis used in Robert Graves' Claudius novels, first published in the 1930s. Polio does not explain many of the described symptoms, however, and a more recent theory implicates cerebral palsy as the cause, as outlined by Ernestine Leon.[48] Tourette syndrome has also been considered a possibility.[49][50] Asperger Syndrome has also been theorized in recent years. [51] [52] As a person, ancient historians described Claudius as generous and lowbrow, a man who sometimes lunched with the plebeians.[53] They also paint him as bloodthirsty and cruel, overly fond of both gladiatorial combat and executions, and very quick to anger (though Claudius himself acknowledged the latter trait, and apologized publicly for his temper).[54] To them he was also overly trusting, and easily manipulated by his wives and freedmen.[55] But at the same time they portray him as paranoid and apathetic, dull and easily confused.[56] The extant works of Claudius present a different view, painting a picture of an intelligent, scholarly, well-read, and conscientious administrator with an eye to detail and justice. Thus, Claudius becomes an enigma. Since the discovery of his "Letter to the Alexandrians" in the last century, much work has been done to rehabilitate Claudius and determine where the truth lies.
Claudius wrote copiously throughout his life. Arnaldo Momigliano[57] states that during the reign of Tiberius ? which covers the peak of Claudius' literary career ? it became impolitic to speak of republican Rome. The trend among the young historians was to either write about the new empire or obscure antiquarian subjects. Claudius was the rare scholar who covered both. Besides the history of Augustus' reign that caused him so much grief, his major works included an Etruscan history and eight volumes on Carthaginian history, as well as an Etruscan Dictionary and a book on dice playing. (Claudius is actually the last person known to have been able to read Etruscan.) Despite the general avoidance of the Imperatorial era, he penned a defense of Cicero against the charges of Asinius Gallus. Modern historians have used this to determine both the nature of his politics and of the aborted chapters of his civil war history.

He proposed a reform of the Latin alphabet by the addition of three new letters, two of which served the function of the modern letters W and Y. He officially instituted the change during his censorship, but they did not survive his reign. Claudius also tried to revive the old custom of putting dots between successive words (Classical Latin was written with no spacing). Finally, he wrote an eight-volume autobiography that Suetonius describes as lacking in taste.[58] Since Claudius (like most of the members of his dynasty) heavily criticized his predecessors and relatives in surviving speeches,[59] it is not hard to imagine the nature of Suetonius' charge.
Unfortunately, none of the actual works survive. They do live on as sources for the surviving histories of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Suetonius quotes Claudius' autobiography once, and must have used it as a source numerous times. Tacitus uses Claudius' own arguments for the orthographical innovations mentioned above, and may have used him for some of the more antiquarian passages in his annals. Claudius is the source for numerous passages of Pliny's Natural History.[60]

The influence of historical study on Claudius is obvious. In his speech on Gallic senators, he uses a version of the founding of Rome identical to that of Livy, his tutor in adolescence. The detail of his speech borders on the pedantic, a common mark of all his extant works, and he goes into long digressions on related matters. This indicates a deep knowledge of a variety of historical subjects that he could not help but share. Many of the public works instituted in his reign were based on plans first suggested by Julius Caesar. Levick believes this emulation of Caesar may have spread to all aspects of his policies.[61] His censorship seems to have been based on those of his ancestors, particularly Appius Claudius Caecus, and he used the office to put into place many policies based on those of Republican times. This is when many of his religious reforms took effect and his building efforts greatly increased during his tenure. In fact, his assumption of the office of Censor may have been motivated by a desire to see his academic labors bear fruit. For example, he believed (as most Romans) that his ancestor Appius Claudius Caecus had used the censorship to introduce the letter "R"[62] and so used his own term to introduce his new letters.

The consensus of ancient historians was that Claudius was murdered by poison ? possibly contained in mushrooms or on a feather ? and died in the early hours of 13 October 54. Accounts vary greatly. Some claim Claudius was in Rome[63] while others claim he was in Sinuessa.[64] Some implicate either Halotus, his taster, Xenophon, his doctor, or the infamous poisoner Locusta as the administrator of the fatal substance.[65] Some say he died after prolonged suffering following a single dose at dinner, and some have him recovering only to be poisoned again.[63] Nearly all implicate his final wife, Agrippina, as the instigator. Agrippina and Claudius had become more combative in the months leading up to his death. This carried on to the point where Claudius openly lamented his bad wives, and began to comment on Britannicus' approaching manhood with an eye towards restoring his status within the imperial family.[66] Agrippina had motive in ensuring the succession of Nero before Britannicus could gain power.

In modern times, some authors have cast doubt on whether Claudius was murdered or merely succumbed to illness or old age.[67] Some modern scholars claim the universality of the accusations in ancient texts lends credence to the crime.[68] But history in those days could not be objectively collected or written, so sometimes amounted to committing whispered gossip to parchment, often years after the events, when everyone who cared was dead. Claudius' ashes were interred in the Mausoleum of Augustus on 24 October, after a funeral in the manner of Augustus.

Already, while alive, he received the widespread private worship of a living Princeps[69] and was worshipped in Britannia in his own temple in Camulodunum.

Claudius was deified by Nero and the Senate almost immediately.[70] Those who regard this homage as cynical should note that, cynical or not, such a move would hardly have benefited those involved, had Claudius been "hated", as some commentators, both modern and historic, characterize him. Many of Claudius' less solid supporters quickly became Nero's men. Claudius' will had been changed shortly before his death to either recommend Nero and Britannicus jointly or perhaps just Britannicus, who would have been considered an adult man according to Roman law only a few months later.

Agrippina had sent away Narcissus shortly before Claudius' death, and now murdered the freedman. The last act of this secretary of letters was to burn all of Claudius' correspondence ? most likely so it could not be used against him and others in an already hostile new regime. Thus Claudius' private words about his own policies and motives were lost to history. Just as Claudius had criticized his predecessors in official edicts (see below), Nero often criticized the deceased Emperor and many of Claudius' laws and edicts were disregarded under the reasoning that he was too stupid and senile to have meant them.[71] Seneca's Apocolocyntosis reinforces the view of Claudius as an unpleasant fool and this remained the official view for the duration of Nero's reign. Eventually Nero stopped referring to his deified adoptive father at all, and realigned with his birth family. Claudius' temple was left unfinished after only some of the foundation had been laid down. Eventually the site was overtaken by Nero's Golden House.[72]

The Flavians, who had risen to prominence under Claudius, took a different tack. They were in a position where they needed to shore up their legitimacy, but also justify the fall of the Julio-Claudians. They reached back to Claudius in contrast with Nero, to show that they were good associated with good. Commemorative coins were issued of Claudius and his son Britannicus ? who had been a friend of the Emperor Titus (Titus was born in 39, Britannicus was born in 41). When Nero's Golden House was burned, the Temple of Claudius was finally completed on the Caelian Hill.[72] However, as the Flavians became established, they needed to emphasize their own credentials more, and their references to Claudius ceased. Instead, he was lumped with the other Emperors of the fallen dynasty. His State cult in Rome probably continued until the abolition of all such cults of dead Emperors by Maximinus Thrax in 237?238.[73] The Feriale Duranum, probably identical to the festival calendars of every regular army unit, assigns him a sacrifice of a steer on his birthday, the Kalends of August.[74] and such commemoration (and consequent feasting) probably continued until the Christianization and disintegration of the army in the late fourth century.[75]

The main ancient historians Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio all wrote after the last of the Flavians had gone. All three were senators or equites. They took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the Princeps, invariably viewing him as being in the wrong. This resulted in biases, both conscious and unconscious. Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work. He was forced to rely on second-hand accounts when it came to Claudius (with the exception of Augustus' letters which had been gathered earlier) and does not quote the Emperor. Suetonius painted Claudius as a ridiculous figure, belittling many of his acts and attributing the objectively good works to his retinue.[76]

Tacitus wrote a narrative for his fellow senators and fitted each of the Emperors into a simple mold of his choosing.[77] He wrote Claudius as a passive pawn and an idiot?going so far as to hide his use of Claudius as a source and omit Claudius' character from his works.[78] Even his version of Claudius' Lyons tablet speech is edited to be devoid of the Emperor's personality. Dio was less biased, but seems to have used Suetonius and Tacitus as sources. Thus the conception of Claudius as the weak fool, controlled by those he supposedly ruled, was preserved for the ages.

As time passed, Claudius was mostly forgotten outside of the historians' accounts. His books were lost first, as their antiquarian subjects became unfashionable. In the 2nd century, Pertinax, who shared his birthday, became Emperor, overshadowing commemoration of Claudius.[79]

The best known fictional representation of the Emperor Claudius were the books I, Claudius and Claudius the God (published in 1934 and 1935) by Robert Graves, both written in the first-person to give the reader the impression that they are Claudius' autobiography. Graves employed a fictive artifice to suggest that they were recently discovered, genuine translations of Claudius' writings. Claudius' extant letters, speeches, and sayings were incorporated into the text (mostly in the second book, Claudius the God) in order to add authenticity.

In 1937, director Josef von Sternberg attempted a film version of I, Claudius, with Charles Laughton as Claudius. Unfortunately, the lead actress Merle Oberon suffered a near-fatal accident and the movie was never finished. The surviving reels were featured in the BBC documentary The Epic That Never Was (1965), revealing some of Laughton's most accomplished acting. The motion picture rights for a new film passed producer Scott Rudin.[80] In 2011, it was announced rights for a miniseries adaptation passed to HBO and BBC2. Anne Thomopoulos and Jane Tranter, producers of the popular HBO/BBC2 Rome miniseries, are attached to the new I, Claudius project.

Graves's two books were the basis for a British television adaptation produced by the BBC. The series starred Derek Jacobi as Claudius and was broadcast in 1976[81] on BBC2. It was a substantial critical success, and won several BAFTA awards. The series was later broadcast in the United States on Masterpiece Theatre in 1977. The DVD release of the television series contains the The Epic that Never Was documentary.

Claudius has been portrayed in film on several other occasions, including in the 1979 motion picture Caligula, the role being performed by Giancarlo Badessi in which the character was depicted as an idiot, in contrast to Robert Graves' portrait of Claudius as a cunning and deeply intelligent man who is perceived by others to be an idiot. Barry Jones also portrayed him sympathetically in Demetrius and the Gladiators.

On television, the actor Rodrigo Adrian La Fuente Soto portrayed Claudius in the 1968 British television series The Caesars while the 1985 made-for-television miniseries A.D. features actor Richard Kiley as Claudius. There is also a reference to Claudius' suppression of one of the coups against him in the movie Gladiator, though the incident is entirely fictional.

In literature, Claudius and his contemporaries appear in the historical novel The Roman by Mika Waltari. Canadian-born science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt reimagined Robert Graves' Claudius story in his two novels Empire of the Atom and The Wizard of Linn.
Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus
82 In his will, dated 8 February 1669[/70?] and proved 4 July 1672, ?Abraha[m] Newell ?, having formerly disposed of the greatest part of my lands unto my children by reason of mine inability to improve them by reason of mine age & weakness & having given to mine eldest son Abraham Newell a deed under my hand of several parcels of lands & unto all the rest of my sons the possession of others of my lands but not sufficiently confiremd unto them,? ordered that ?the lands that I have confirmed as before expressed unto my eldest son Abra[ham] Newell with twenty pounds given to him at his marriage shall be his double portion out of all the lands that I have already divided unto my children although not sufficiently confirmed unto the rest of my children as this is to him?; ?my son John Newell shall have ten acres of land near unto Joseph Bugbie?s house & one quarter part of my salt marsh at the Salt Pans, also my fresh meadow at Flaggy Meadow but in case that the said Joh[n] Newell have no natural heirs begotten of his body all these several parcels of lands here willed to him shall fall unto the rest of my children, my sons Abra[ham], Isaac & Jacob Newell & to my son-in-law Willaim Tay ? not hindering dowry in case that he doth marry?; ?my other two sons Isaac & Jacob Newell shall have my lot at the Pond Plain & the lot at the neck of it that was bought formerly of Edward Denyson & the land on the rocks called Totman?s Rocks that was lately the land of William Hopkins & Sam[ue]l Ruggles & all my meadow in Bear Marsh & half my salt marsh at the Salt Pans?; ?my son-in-law Willaim Toy shall have my Long Orchard near unto where my dwelling house butting on the knol of the hill near to where my said house was & by the way leading by the north side of Richard Meadeses houselot & [one word illegible] John Watson?s homelot & all the other land there that is mine whether orchard, woodland or pasture land down to Sam[ue]l Ruggles his pasture that he bought of me in all about fifteen acres of land?; ?all these several parcels of land abovementioned that are willed unto my sons Abra[ham], John, Isaac & Jacob Newell is now in their hands & possession they giving to me for the same every one of them as I have agreed with them or as my necessity shall require during the whole term of her natural life yearly?; ?for all the worldly goods that I shall die possessed of or that is due to me in the hands of any person whatsoever excepting what is abovementioned or that shall be hereafter expressed in this my will whether it be housing or lands, cattle or moveable goods or what else soever I dispose of it as followeth: ? my dear wife Francis Newell shall have the use & benefit of my whole estate for & during the term of her natural life & that she shall dwell with any of her children where it liketh her best yet being provided for & it is my will that she shall be provided for by all my children by an equal proportion as they do enjoy of my lands in their possession (that is to say) that my eldest son Abra[ham] Newell as he doth enjoy & possess a double portion of all the lands divided out to my sons my said son Abra[ham] shall provide as much more as any of the rest of my children for the maintenance of my said wife & all the rest of my sons as my sons John, Isaac & Jacob Newell & my son-in-law William Toy shall provide every one of them equally for the comfortable livelihood of my said wife, they, their heirs, executors & assigns during the whole term of her natural life?; ?after my wife?s decease my will is that my eldest son Abra[ham] Newell shall possess & enjoy the knoll of the hill by his house that he set up where mine was burnt adjoining to it & the land about it that he doth now possess of mine abovementioned it lying on the north side of it & it lying on the south side of my son-in-law W[illia]m Toy?s Long Orchard above expressed abutting east on the land of the heirs of Isaac Morrell?; ?my other two sons Isaac & Jacob Newell shall have, possess & enjoy my lot of twenty & two acres in the woods in the thousand acres near Dedham & that it shall be equally divided betwixt them both?; ?all the rest of my estate after the decease of my said wife whatsoever either in her hands or in the hands of any person whatsoever excepting as is above expressed shall be equally divided unto all my children that is to say unto sons Abra[ham], John, Isaac & Jacob Newell & unto my son-in-law W[illia]m Toy excepting my said wife?s wearing clothes which shall be at her liberty to dispose of to whom she pleaseth; also in case my children cannot agree about the division of the goods left to them after my wife?s decease or any differences should arise amongst them about anything that they do possess of mine or that I have disposed to them by my will or otherways that they may agree amongst themselves I do most desire but if they cannot my will is that they shall choose each of them one man being no way related to them these men then [one word illegible] with my two friends desired to be my overseers of this my will to have power to hear & finally determine all such difference that shall arise amongst any of them, they or the major part of them, but in case either by death or removal there doth want an odd man, these men thus chosen shall have the full power to choose an odd man and farther whatsoever I shall see meet to leave in the hands of any of my children either rents or cattle or anything else excepting what I shall leave upon record after the date of this my last will none of the rest of my children shall have any power to call them to an account for it after my decease?; ?my dear wife Francis Newell shall be my executrix & my loving son Isaac Newell shall be my executor?; ?my loving friends John Boales & Willaim Gary to be my overseers? [SPR 7:220-22].

1.? Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts, United States. Vital Records of Roxbury, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849. (Salem, Massachusetts: Essex Institute, 1925-1926), 600.

NEWEL, Abraham, sr., June 13, 1672, a. 91 y.

2.? 2.0 2.1 Abraham Newell sketch, in Great Migration Newsletter. (Boston, Massachusetts: Great Migration Study Project), [1].

ORIGIN: Unknown
MIGRATION: 1634 on the Francis of Ipswich (on 30 April 1634, ?Abraham Newell,? aged 50, ?Francis his wife,? aged 40, ?Fayth Newell,? aged 14 [listed in the family of John Bernard], ?Grace Newell,? aged 13 [listed in the family of William Westwood], ?Abraham Newell,? aged 8, ?John Newell,? aged 5, and ?Isaacke Newell,? aged 2, were enrolled at Ipswich as passengers for New England on the Francis of Ipswich [Hotten 277-79]).
BIRTH: About 1584 (aged 50 on 30 April 1634 [Hotten 279]).
DEATH: Roxbury 15 June 1672 ?aged 91? [RChR 180].

Francis (1634)

Part of the Great Migration.
Sailed: 30 Apr 1634 from Unspecified Port, England under Captain John Cutting
Arrived: July? 1634 at Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony


~50 (Full List) John Beetes - William Haulton - Nicholas Jennings - William Westwoode family (servants John Lea, Grace Newell) - Cleeare Draper - Robert Rose family - John & Mary Bernard, Fayth Newell and Henry Haward - William Freebourne family (with John Aldburgh and Anthony White) - Edwawrd Bugbye family - Abraham Newell family - Isaacke Newell - Richard Holden - Justinian Holden - John Pease (with Fayth Clearke, Robert Pease, Darcas Greene) - Robert & Judith Winge - John Greene - Robert Pease - Hugh & Hester Mason - Rowland Stebing family (with Mary Winche) - Thomas Sherwood family - Thomas King - John Mapes - Mary Blosse & son Richard - Robert Coe family - Mary Onge - Thomas Boyden - Richard Wattlin - John Lyvermore - Richard Pepper family (with Stephen Beckett) - Judeth Garnett - Elizabeth Hamond - Thurston Clearke


Resources: Primary Sources:
Other information: Olive Tree Genealogy Passenger List

Abraham Newell
83 It appears Rebecca was the last of the children born to Abraham and Frances. She also appears to be the first born on American soil. Rebecca Newell
84 He ruled for a long time and had great riches., going on viking raids several summers. On a raid in Saxony he captured Yrsa and married her. He killed King Ali of Oppland in a battle. He took great delight in fine horses and gave a prize horse toKing Godgest in Halogaland who rode him but could not rein him and was thrown and killed. He himself later was killed by a fall from a horse at a sacrifice for the godess Disarat Uppsala. His head hit a rock and broke his skull and his brainsspilled out.

Ruled Svithiod after his father King Ottar. Mentioned in Beowulf as Eadgils of the royal Swedish line of the Scylfingas (Skilfings). Audils ruled for a long time and often went on viking expeditions to Saxonland, Denmakr and Norway. In Saxonland, Audils captured the household of King Geirthiof, among whom was a remarkably beautiful girl, called Yrsa. The king married her, but she was afterward taken to Denmark by King Helge of Leire after a successful plundering expedition in Svithiod. As King Audils once rode around the hall at a sacrifice his horse stumbled and fell, and the king was killed. [History of Sweden, p. 38]

!He and his father Ottar are mentioned in Beowulf as Ohthere and his son Eadgils of the royal Swedish line of the Scylfingas (Skilfings). This fact gives to Swedish history its first reliable date -- abt the 6th century. Audils captured the household of King Geirthiof and married Yrsa, a beautiful young
girl who was part of the household. King Audils once rode around the hall at a sacrifice where his horse stumbled and fell, killing the king. [WBH - Sweden]

!Ruled for a long time and often went on viking expeditions to Saxonland, Denmark and Norway. [WBH - Sweden]

!Had great quarrels with his uncle, King Ali the Upplander. They had a battle on the ice of Lake Vaner, where King Ali fell and Athils had the victory. There is a long account of his battle in Skjoldunga Saga. Athils was a true Swede in his love of fine horses, but the poets and sagamen have not dealt kindly with him: it is a grotesque and baffled mischief-maker who squinnies at us from their pages. Even with horses his touch was not held to be infallible: according to the Kalfsvisa he fell off one, a grey, at Lake Vaner, when they rode to the ice, and according to Snorri fell off another at a sacrifice and knocked his brains out on a stone. This happened at Uppsala and he was buried in a mound there. Saxo Grammaticus would have us believe that he died of strong drink, while celebrating with immoderate joviality the death of his enemy Hrolf/Hrothulf. [A History of the Vikings, p. 38-9]

# Reference Number: G6T0-2S


# Note:

The twentieth king of the Yngling dynasty in Sweden was said to be Adil. This legendary monarch was married to Yrsa, the daughter of King Helge of Denmark. Yrsa, although Helge's daughter, had also been his lover and had born him a son name Rolf, who later became king of Denmark.

# Note: There was, predictably, a great deal of jealousy and fighting between Adil of Sweden and Helge of Denmark. In the end, Helge was treacherously murdered by Adil.

Adil did not live long after this. While at a great sacrifice in Uppsala, he died by falling from a horse, a death which was considered shameful. Yrsa's son Rolf, on the other hand, died in battle, which was considered glorious. Rolf's praises were then sung over all of Scandinavia.

# Note: (legends of early Swedish kings) [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev]

# Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
# Note: Page: 3-4

Adillis "Athils" Ottarsson
85 Said to have come to New England at age of ten, and to have lost the sight of one eye to an arrow. He & Giles Hopkins served as surveyors of highways for Eastham in 1662.

Thomas was the great grandfather of Robert Treat Paine, A signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Paine Family Records - Volume I pages 141, 183; Volume II pages 12-17, 43
Author: Paine, Henry Delaven, 1816-1885?Volume: 2

This book has an editable web page on Open Library Thomas Paine of Eastham what can be learned from records he was skilled in the art of mill building, and was employed in erecting them in various parts of the county. For the great expense he was at "in building two Grist Mills in Eastham for the use of the town'" he was allowed, in 16S3, a large tract of land on the northerly side of " Kescayogansett Cove," which is now included within the limits of Or- leans. So far as can be ascertained he was a man of more than ordinarv education. He was a splendid penman. The v.-riter has a specimen of his penmanship when well ad- vanced in years, with his signature. He wrote his name Tho. Paine. He died at Eastham, August 16, 1706, but at what age is not known. That he was "aged" is certain. He affirms it in his will, and his son John, also, in his diary, points to the same fact when speaking of the death of his " aged father." As no stone, with inscription, points out the resting place of Thomas Paine, it is unknown where he was buried : but the supposition is his ashes lie in the old burying ground west of Town Cove, m Eastham, Mass., where lie the early settlers of that town.

His will: In the name of God. Amen. The twelvth day of May, 1705, I. Thomas Paine of Eastham, in ye County of Barnstable, in ye Province of Massachusetts Bay; being aged and weak in botly, but of sufficient mind and memor}- ? thanks be given to God ? therefore calling to mind the mortality of my body, and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die, do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament ; tiiat is to say, principally and first of all, I give and recommend my soul into ye hands of God that gave it, and my body I recommend to the earth to be buried in decent Christian burial at ye disposition of my Ex- ecutors, nothing doubting but at ye general ressurection I shall receive ye same again by the mighty power of God. And as touching sucli worldly estate wherewith it hath pleased God to bless me in this life, I give, demise and dispose of the same in ye following manner and form. In:p. I give and bequeath my son Nicholas Paine, his heirs & assigns forever all my lands, mills, house and housing at Keaskokagansett in the town of Eastham, with all niy right title to all town's privileges and my two shares in ye land purchased of Mr. Samuel Smith, called the ten pound purchase ; also all my meadow lying on or by Sampson's Island. and between Sampson's Island and Hog Island in sd Eastham ; as also my upland at both ends of Sampson's Island ; and my share of meadoy,' which lies to the southward of Porchy Island, which was granted me by ye town in ye year of our Lord, 1703. Iinp. I give to my daugliter, Man-, the wife of Israel Cole, ten shillings in money: all the rest and residue of my estate, both real and personal, goods ^ chattels whatso- ever, I give and bequeath to be equally divided to and among my chil- dren, viz : ? Samuel Paine, Thomas Paine. Elisha Paine, John Paine, Nicholas Paine, James Paine, Joseph Paine, DoTcas Vickery, the wife of Benj.. and three eldest children of Mary, my daughter, the wife of Israel Cole, viz : ? James Rogers, Mary Cole, and Abigail Yates ; (that is to say) the sd. children of my sd. daughter shall have (with the ten shill- ings which she is to have) one share or equal portions with }-e rest of my sd. children, which shall be equally divided among them. And I do also hereby constitute, make and ordain my two sons Samuel Paine &; Thomas Paine, to be ye Executors of this my last Will and Testa- ment, & I do hereby utterly disallow, revoke and disannul all and even,- other fornier Testament & Will, legacy and bequest &: executors, by me in any way before named willed & bequeathed. Ratifying vi confirming this, and no other, to be my last Will & Tes- tament. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal, }'¶_- day and vear above written. THOMAS PAINE, [L. si Signed, sealed, published, pronounced and declared by the said Thomas Paine as his last Will and Testament. 
Thomas Paine
86 He died from Indian attack. There is a question whether he, himself, was an indian. John Parker
87 Martha was said to be a full blood Cherokee born of Parker and Mariah. Martha Elizabeth Parker
88 J W Penix and A C Smith married 11 Aug. 1881 James W. Penix
89 Walter had an older sister, b 2 Mar 1884. Her gravestone calls her Ella Gilstrap, but I've found that her first name was Mary and her middle name(s) were either Luella or Lou Ella. I can't even be sure that this info is accurate. The only thing that put me on to Ella was that she and Walter are buried next to one another, kind of offset that made it seem they were related, so I followed the Gilstrap path. Walter William Penix
90 this information is input by William's son, John.

William grew up without knowing his father and hardly seeing his mother. He was raised by his grandparents on his maternal side, George and Lula Daniel. Walter and Myrtle, William's parents, were married in 1926, had William in 1927, and divorced in 1928. Walter was much older than Myrtle (abt. 20 years).
William was raised as Joebob Daniel on the Daniel farm in Oklahoma with his grandparents, aunts, and uncles. According to him, he didn't know his real name until he was in his early teens, when he first met his father.
William loved Lula, his grandmother, very much, but he couldn't live with George, his grandfather. George was a hard man and didn't take William's thinking and feelings into account. William ran away between 14 and 16 yrs. old. He told us of his travels as a hobo, hopping trains and living in hobo camps. He also told us about his being on a chain gang in Florida and how he had escaped, but, other than his stories, I have no record or evidence of such an event.
When Lula died, William returned home for her funeral; her death stopped his hobo life. He soon left and never returned to the Daniel farm (again, much of this is from his own words).
William played a little guitar when he was a boy. He became interested in the steel guitar and settled in for some hard studying. Meanwhile, he got married, had children, worked various jobs, and began to play country music at bars and clubs. He played steel guitar for more than 40 years and he loved it to the core.
William also loved the sport of boxing. He was a natural fighter and liked getting into fights, as well as boxing in a ring. During his young adult years, music and fighting were very important to him.
William was the kind of man who showed no fear. He would never apologize or say that he was sorry, it just wasn't in him to do so. I kind of think he was born one or two hundred years too late. He had a kind of mountain man character about him with nerves of steel, was a natural wanderer, and existed with a kind of cowboy morals. Though he played music where frolicing with females came easy, he never cheated on his wife. He was a teetotaller and drank nothing stronger than sodas. He said "son of a bitch" so often and so easily it was hardly recognized as cussing, but he never said the "f" word and didn't take God's name in vain.
I could count the times he said, "I love you, John" on one hand, but I knew he did. He was a bigot, but also a friend to anyone who was genuine. He wasn't easy to understand sometimes. He was a wonderful storyteller and he made the steel guitar sound like music from heaven; he was my dad.
After writing the above, I later came across two things that caused some consternation and wonderment. I spoke with my grandfather's (Walter) sister's son, Pat Gilstrap, who told me that my father had spent two months or more with his dad once and that he had seen him several times as an adult. This went against what my father had said about seeing his father only twice in his lifetime. I've wondered why my father would lie about such a thing - maybe he was ashamed of his father, I don't know.
I have very little information about Walter. I know he only married the one time and that he spent many years in Fresno with his sister, Ella Gilstrap, and her family. He was something of a hermit, keeping to himself a lot, doing odd jobs and getting by until he died in his 80's.
The other disturbing thing was my father's reading. Everyday my father had his face buried in books, especially in the early mornings. I thought he loved to read, for he was always reading books about cultures, places, and travel. All this reading, yet he couldn't spell my name correctly. He spelled it Jhon. Also, he wrote poetry, but was a terrible speller, so I would make the corrections for him.
After becoming a teacher I realized that a person who read as much as my father should have been a better speller. Then it occured to me that maybe he was faking it all those years, maybe he was looking at the pictures and not truly reading, and that perhaps he was actually illiterate. I know he was a terrible student while in school and quit when he was in the eighth grade. Certain things have made me come to believe he was dislexic, but I have no proof, just a bunch of odd connections.
The last goodbye to my father:

It was on the threshold of a beautiful day the morning I rose and readied myself to see the body of my father. I arrived at the funeral home early. I didn't want curious passers-by to idly walk in to see him and I wanted personal time alone with him. I chatted with the funeral director for a few moments and took a big breath before entering the viewing room; this would only be the second dead person I had ever seen, and this was my father. My mind was in an upheaval of unorganized thoughts and emotion.
I had last seen him on Sunday, two days before he died. Driving home with my wife, I mentioned how differently my dad had acted that weekend. He had flirted with her, very unexpected and not like him, and he appeared to have found an inner calm. It was only five months earlier when his doctor had told him (using a car analogy) his heart was running on two cylinders, instead the full eight it normally had used. It was a hint that his time was short and I believe that, up until that weekend, my father had lived with the shadow and fear of death. I now believe the lord visited my father before those last few days and put his mind at ease.
From the foyer I could see his head propped above the edge of the casket. I walked up and just stood there looking at him for a while. It was indeed my father's body. I hadn't been there when my mother discovered him lying cold in his bed. I had to see him to have closure, to believe that he really had died. He looked at peace with his hands laid across his lower stomach. He was dressed in the shirt and suit he had worn on his recent cruise up the Mississippi, the suit I had taken to the funeral director the day before. He looked good. I reached out and touched his left hand; it was as cold as ice. I didn?t know the body would become so cold after death. No energy, I thought (I later learned that they literally do put the bodies in a cooler for a variety of reasons). I told him that I loved him and that I would miss him. I placed a leather pouch in the casket next to his arm and told him that his picks and bar should go with him and that I didn't want any other steel guitar man to ever use them, they were his alone. I kissed him on the forehead and said, "Goodbye, old man"

A poem I wrote dedicated to my father:

Death of a Steel Guitar Man

Today the family gathered to bury one old man,
Six bearers bore the coffin with the strength of their six hands,
Testimony was spoken by a few while all did stand,
But something was whispering from afar.

Who will play the music this proud man practiced all his days,
And studied long with diligence in spite of crying babes,
Notes and chords and harmonies, honing skills in wondrous ways,
With finger picks and sliding metal bar.

Who'll take this magical instrument, place it on its face,
Screw in the legs; attach the piece that holds them in their place,
Connect the rods, the brackets, and pedals, bottom to base,
Stand it upright and play the steel guitar.

In truth, it will not happen while the death of him is near,
His passing has left wounds that only heal with many years,
The instrument will find an attic far from hurtful tears,
Lay dormant in the webbing of death's scar.

Someday, someone younger may burn with music's strong desire,
And discover in an attic what set one heart on fire,
And find with long, hard work the sound that instrument could sire,
That makes some men take note of what they are.

Again the beautiful music would know this family,
And fill the hearts of those that missed the soft, sweet memories
Of how the steel guitar could cry and comfort like a dream,
And spread it's magic upward to the stars.

John, in loving memory of dad.
William Walter Penix
91 John was part of Captain Samuel Overton's Company of Rangers from 1755 to 1756 during the French and Indian War. John Pinnix
92 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Hammeline (of Anjou) Plantagenet De Warrenne
93 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Charlemagne Roman
94 Called The Pious (778-840), Holy Roman emperor (814-40), king of France (814-40), king of Germany (814-40), and king of Aquitaine (781-840). He was the son of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. In 817 Louis made plans providing for the posthumous division of the Carolingian Empire among his three surviving sons, Lothair I, Holy Roman emperor, Louis II, king of Germany, and Charles II, Holy Roman emperor. His reign, however, was troubled by quarrels with his sons, who were dissatisfied with his arrangements for the succession. Louis was physically strong but was easily influenced and was unequal to administering the large empire that he inherited from his father.

# Note:

In 781, at age 2, Louis I, "Le Pieux", was crowned and anointed King of Aquitaine by Pope Hadrian I, at the same time as his older brother Pepin was made King of Italy. Louis, whose twin brother had died at birth, was the third of Charlemagne's sons by his wife Hildegard. The Diviso Regni of 806indicates that Louis was to have Aquitaine as an independent kingdom upon his father's death. Aquitaine was in effect a March; for much of Louis' reign as sub-king he and his officials were occupied in quelling Gascon revolts and launching offensives into Spain. Unrest had never completely died out in the Pyrenees since the annexation of Aquitaine in 768, and more especially after the disastrous ambush of the Frankish vanguard in Roncesvalles in 778. In about 788, Chorso, Duke of Toulouse was captured by a Gascon named Adelric, and then released after being forced to swear an oath of allegiance to the Gascon or Basque leader. In 793, the Sarracens invaded Septimania, burned the suburbs of Narbonne and marched on Carcassonne, but in 795 Bahlul-ben-Machluc sued with Louis for peace. In 800, he successfully laid siege to Barcelona and subsequently captured Tortosa, Huesca and Pamplona and formed links with the Kingdom of the Asturias. Baptized: on 15 Apr 781; On 15 April 781, Louis was baptized by Pope Hadrian I in Rome. The next day, Easter Sunday, he was confirmed in his title of King of Aquitaine. Married in 794: Ermengarde d'Esbay, daughter of Engueran=Ingram, Count d'Esbay.

Note - between 800 and 837: Louis I established monasteries in Nouaille (a cell of St. Hilaire of Poitiers), Gellone and St. Martin-de-Tours.

After the death of his brothers Pepin and Charles in 810 and 811 respectively, Louis was crowned at Aachen on 13 September 813, Emperor and heir to all of Charlemagne's lands, by Charlemagne himself without any assistance nor even the presence of the Pope. All sources, Frankish as well as papal, refer to Louis as emperor from then on. Charlemagne died 5 months later. All of Louis' sisters were required to quit the palace and retire to their own estates. His cousins, the offsprings of Bernard (Pepin III's half brother) were exhiled: Louis forced Count Wala to become a monk at Corbie; Adalhard was exhiled to Noirmoutier to be held there in custody by the Abbot; Bernhard returned to Lerin and Gundrada had to retreat to St. Radegund's convent of Sainte Croix in Poitiers. Only Theodrada was left unmolested as abbess of Notre Dame at Soissons. Louis I was also known as Louis, "Le Pieux". On 27 February 814, upon learning of the death of his father, and at the age of 36 years, he left Doue-la-Fontaine, in Anjou, to go to Aix-la-Chapelle.

# Note:

This new emperor, enterred this capital, and poised himself in front of the tomb of Charlemagne. So oversome with grief, his forehead touched the stone floor of the church. Hence the name "Le Pieux". Since he was kind, relative to his times, he was also known as "Le Debonnaire". For himself, he preferred to adopt the title "by divine Providence, Emperor Augustus". When Pope Leo died in May of 816, Stephen IV was elected Pope, and crowned Louis the Emperor on Sunday 5 October by placing a crown on his head during mass at Rheims. He also secured the release of some Roman exhiles in Francia. This crowning was among the first attempts to integrate the Papacy into the institutional framework of the Empire. Louis, 'lest he be led astray in satisfying the natural desires of the body' married Ermengarde, daughter of Count Ingramn. Charlemagne established Doue-la-Fontaine, Chasseneuil (Louis' birthplace), Angeac and Ebreuil as royal residences to maintain Louis and his household. At an assembly in Aachen in July 817, Louis made provisions for his sons' inheritance through the "Ordinatio Imperii". In his preface he states that the unity of the empire preserved for Louis by God should not be destroyed by men. Lothar was given the title of emperor, and as co-ruler with his father at once made heir to the empire, and appointed King of Italy in the event of his father's death. Bernard, then King of Italy was not mentioned, but the implication is that Bernard would be subordinate to Lothar should Louis die. Pepin was made King of Aquitaine (plus Gascony, Toulouse, Carcassonne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers) and Louis, The German, was made King of Bavaria (plus Carinthia, Bohemia, the lands of the Avars and Slavs and the royal manors of Lauterhofen and Ingolstadt). Pepin and Louis were to meet on an annual basis with Lothar to consult and together find "measures to take in the interest of perpetual peace". They could neither start a war nor marry without the approval of their elder brother. Lothar even had the right to de-throne them after three warnings. That same year, 817, Stephen IV obtains his political independence, thus severing the tie between Rome and the Frank Empire as conceived by Charlemagne. The arrangement was neat and all contingencies covered except for the one which took place. After his first wife's (Ermengarde) death, Louis, in 819, married the beautiful Bavarian Judith, daughter of Comte Welf of Bavaria. On 13 June 823 she gave birth to a son. He was called Charles. In September, 824, forgetting his nickname "Le Debonnaire", Louis totally ravages the Bretagne which was rebelling. In 829, at the General Assembly convoked in Worms (Wurm), Louis announces that he is forging a Duchy for his son, Charles, and gives him Alamania, Alsace, Rhetia, and part of Burgundy. The Co-Emperor Lothar, disagrees and has his name removed from imperial decrees and diplomas. Toward the end of 829, the political scene gets very complicated with allegations that Judith had intimate rapports with Bernard, Count of Barcelone, and ultimately desiring the death of the three sons of Hirmingarde. In Mai of 830, in Compiegne, Lothar and Pepin of Aquitaine lead a revolt. Louis is forced to cede on every point of contention. The apanage of the young Charles is eliminated, Judith is locked up in Poitiers at the Monastery of Sainte-Radegonde. In 831, the bishops would note how she had a talent for converting men's hearts and souls, and would allow her to rejoin her husband. In 832, Pepin and Louis revolt against their father. On 24 June 833, the Army of Louis Le Pieux faces those of the rebels. The field of battle in Rothfeld would be named the Field of the Lie (Lugenfeld). The Emperor and his sons begin negotiations. The night of 29 to 30 June, it is clear that the supporters of Louis would be influenced by his three sons. On the morning of 30 June, Louis would have to surrender. It would not be until 1 October that Louis would be deposed by the Assembly led by Agobard, Archbishop of Lyon and Eblon, Archbishop of Reims. On 7 October, Judith is sent to the Monastery of Tortone, Bernard to Prum, and Louis to the Monastery of Saint-Medard-de-Soissons, where in public ceremony, he is forced to lay down his sword, stripped of royal vestments, he is made to don the coarse cloth of a penitent. In 834, Louis and Pepin, tired of being under the control of their brother Lothar, decide to free their father. On 28 February, they succeed in freeing their father and in August in Blois, Lothar swears to Louis Le Pieux, that he would never leave Italy except by his direct command. Throughout 834, the Normands -- Danes, Swedes and Norwegians -- resume their raids. On 28 February 835, the General Assembly proclaims that Louis was innocent of all previous accusations thus clearing the way for him to be re-established as Emperor on the Throne at Saint-Stephen of Metz.

# Note:

In 837, thanks to the intercessions of Judith, Charles "Le Chauve", receives a Kingdom composed of Frisia, between the Seine, the Meuse and the sea and in September 838, he receives the crown at Quierzy-sur-Oise. In 838, Marseille is devastated by the Sarrasins. On 30 May 839, the Empire is divided in half, with Lothar taking the East, and Charles' lands extend through Provence, Lyon, Toul and Geneva and all the lands of the West. Louis "the German", gets to keep only Bavaria. Married in 819: Judith de Baviere (3628), daughter of Welf II, Count de Baviere and Egilwich=Heilwig, Abbess de Challes ; Louis married Judith upon the death of his first wife, Ermengarde. She bore him a son named Charles in 823. It is clear that Louis was as fond of Charles as Jacob was of his Benjamin. Died: on 22 Jun 840 in Ingelheim, Germany, at age 61 In 840, while attempting to keep Louis "the German" in line, Louis "Le Pieux" is taken ill in Salz. Feeling near death, he sends Lothar his sword and the crown on the condition that he would be loyal to Judith and abide by the lands division agreed to in Worms in 839. He died on an island, near Ingelheim on 22 June. 309. Judith de Baviere (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.)

# Note: (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 130, Line 171-40.)
# Note: (Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians, Page 136).
# Note:

Married Name: de France. Born: circa 800 in Altdorf, Bavaria, daughter of Welf II, Count de Baviere (3626) and Egilwich=Heilwig, Abbess de Challes . Married in 819: Louis I, King de France , son of Charlemagne, Rex Francorum et Langobardorum and Hildegard, Countess de Linzgau ; Louis married Judith upon the death of his first wife, Ermengarde. She bore him a son named Charles in 823. It is clear that Louis was as fond of Charles as Jacob was of his Benjamin. Died: on 19 Apr 843 in Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France.

Louis I (The Pious) Roman
95 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Kenneth II of Scotland
96 Donald II of Scotland (Domnall mac Causant? was king of Scotland from 889 to 900. He was the son of King Constantine I and first cousin of the previous king Eochaid and of his successor Constantine II.

Donald took the throne of Scotland in battle as an act of revenge. King Giric I of Scotland (who ruled jointly with Donald's predecessor Eochaid had murdered Donald's uncle, Aed, in 878. Upon Giric's death, Donald expelled Eochaid from the country, thereby taking rulership of Scotland for himself.

It was under the rule of King Donald II that the British kingdom of Strathclyde came under Scottish dominance to create the Kingdom of Alba, thus being recognized in the Annals of Ulster as "ri Alban" as opposed to "rex Pixtorum," as his predecessors had been known. His reign coincided with renewed invasions by the Danes, who came less to plunder and more to occupy the lands bordering Scotland and the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The Danish had conquered all of northern Scotland through the leadership of 'Sigurd the Mighty'. Donald was also embroiled in efforts to reduce the Highland robber tribes.

His death is very mysterious. By one account he was slain at Dunnottar while meeting a Danish invasion; by another he died of infirmity brought on by his campaigns against the Highlanders, a natural death that is very uncommon in this period. He was buried on the Isle of Iona, the historic resting place of all Dalriadan and early Scottish kings. He was succeeded by his cousin Constantine II. His son, Malcolm, later became King Malcolm I of Scotland.  
King Donald of Scotland, II
97 According to tradition, Old Scone was made the capital of the Picts in the 8th century. In 843 Kenneth I MacAlpin, the first king of the Picts and Scots, is said to have brought here the Stone of Destiny (or Stone of Scone). The Scottish kings were crowned on the stone until 1296, when Edward I, king of England, took it to Westminster Abbey in London. The stone remained there for the next seven centuries, apart from a period in 1950 when it was removed by Scottish nationalists and returned to Scotland; it was recovered four months later. In 1996 the stone was again returned to Scotland by an act of the British government. Even without the stone, Scottish sovereigns continued to be crowned at Scone, the last coronation being that of Charles I in 1651 during his exile from England.
© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

In 844 Kenneth MacAlpine, king of Dalriada, and later king of Scotland, who was a descendant of the Pictish royal family, obtained the crown of Pictland, probably with the assent of the harassed Picts. The united kingdoms, officially known as Alban, comprised all the territory north of the firths of Forth and Clyde. Kenneth and several of his successors vainly attempted to subdue the remaining Northumbrian possessions in Caledonia and, in alliance with Strathclyde, tried to halt the raids of the Vikings. Although, with the help of the Northumbrians, the Vikings were prevented from securing a foothold in Dalriada, they seized various coastal areas in the north, east, and west and occupied the Orkney and Shetland islands and the Hebrides. In later times the rulers of England claimed the Scottish domain on the basis of the aid their forebears had given to Alban.
© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.  
King Kenneth MacAlpin of Scotland
98 Malcolm II of Scotland (MŠel Coluim mac CinŠeda) c. 954-1034 was King of Scotland (Alba) from 1005 to 1034. He was the son of King Kenneth II and first cousin of his predecessor, King Kenneth III (CinŠed mac Duib), who was murdered by Malcolm at the Battle of Monzievaird in 1005. He was the last king of the House of Alpin.

His rule was contested for ten years during the reign of Kenneth III but Malcolm finally gained the throne after Kenneth's death. It appears that he only ruled part of Scotland during his reign, in opposition to leaders from Moray such as FindlŠech mac RuadrŪ (d. 1020, probably father of Macbeth), and MŠel Coluim mac MŠel Brigte (d. 1029), both of whom were also called kings of Alba (and therefore Scotland) in the Irish annals, though neither are called kings of Scotland in modern texts. In 1006, Malcolm was defeated by Northumbrian forces at Durham. The English then became preoccupied with the Danish allowing Malcolm to march south, avenging the loss at Durham by winning the Battle of Carham against the Anglo-Saxons in 1018 and, thereby, regaining Lothian. Thirteen years later, however, Canute, king of England, Denmark, and Norway, invaded Scotland, and forced the Scottish king to submit to him (submission was a traditional expression of personal homage). However, Canute seems to have recognised Malcolm's possession of Lothian.

In the west, Malcolm made an alliance with King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde and together they defeated King Canute at the Battle of Carham in 1018. At the same time, the marriage of his daughter to Sigurd the Stout, Norse Earl of Orkney, extended Malcolm's influence to the far north. He battled to expand his kingdom, gaining land down to the River Tweed and in Strathclyde. When King Owen died without an heir, Malcolm claimed Strathclyde for his grandson, Duncan. This caused dissent throughout the kingdom of Strathclyde which resulted in Malcolm's murder at Glamis in 1034. He was buried on the Isle of Iona shortly after.

As the last of the House of Alpin, he did not have any sons to succeed him. He, therefore, arranged good marriages for his daughters. One daughter married Earl Sigurd of Orkney and their son Thorfinn brought the lands of Caithness and Sutherland under the control of the King of Alba. His elder daughter, Bethoc, married the Abbot of Dunkeld and their son became Duncan I(c.1010-1040), who succeeded Malcolm upon his death in 1034.

After Malcolm II's reign, Scottish succession changed to be based on the principle of direct descent. (Previously, succession was determined by tanistry - during a king's lifetime an heir was chosen and known as tanaiste rig - 'second to the king'.)

Malcolm II of Scotland
99 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Malcomb I of Scotland
100 William married Sarah SELF daughter of Job SELF about 1800 in Usa. Sarah was born in 1781/1782 in , Buncombe, Nc, Usa. She died in 1856 in , Union, Ga, Usa.

Buried Shady Grove Cemetery Union Co GA.

Daughter Elizabeth stated Sarah was from Virginia.

1850 Union Co GA Census shows Sarah Daniel age 70 NC Living with Mary & William Reece.
Sarah Self

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